» home » endnotes
Prologue: THE ROOF
9 The Bronx was the center of a homicide epidemic in New York, with more than half the city’s murders in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Robert D. McFadden, “New York Leads Big Cities in Robbery Rate, but Drops in Murders,” New York Times, April 11, 1991.
10 In 1996, those who lived in New York public housing were three times more likely to be hit by gunfire than residents in the rest of the city. Extrapolated from 1996 CompStat figures. There were 362 shooting victims that year in New York City’s public housing, which holds roughly 400,000. The rest of the city of 8 million had 2,938. So 2,938 − 362 = 2,576.
Soundview: The Genesis of Violence
One: Li’l Gunbuster
16 By 1988, the Soundview Houses complex accommodated around 1,250 families, mainly black and Puerto Rican; 3 percent were white. Author’s FOIL request, New York City Housing Authority number 1013992, Research and Policy Development, Special Tabulation of Tenant Statistics, p. 213: Soundview, January 1, 1998.
18 In 1988, 150,000 people toiled in the crack business in New York.Terry Williams, Crackhouse: Notes from the End of the Line (New York: Penguin, 1993), 10.
Two: Do Not Yield to Evil
29 Among the crowd offering polite applause was the forty-year-old architect Max Urbahn, who had helped design the Jefferson Memorial in Washington, DC, and who went on to design, among other projects, prisons, military installations, and the forty-two-story Franklin D. Roosevelt Station Post Office in Manhattan. Mailing List for Special Invitations for Ground Breaking Ceremony for Soundview Houses, 11:00 a.m., September 23, 1952, obtained by author from the Wagner Archives, La Guardia Community College, September 2013.
34 Over two weeks in August 1973, fires consumed fifty-six separate blocks around Charlotte Street. Jill Jonnes, South Bronx Rising: The Rise, Fall, and Resurrection of an American City, 2nd ed. (New York: Fordham University Press, 2002), 251.
34 Some parts of the South Bronx lost half of their housing, a level of destruction unknown anywhere in the world outside of wartime bombing.Jacob Levenson, The Secret Epidemic: The Story of AIDS and Black America (New York: Pantheon, 2004), 102.
Three: Hit a Killer, Be a Killer
41 Like powder cocaine, crack can increase baseline dopamine levels several times over, but crack can be smoked, and this route of administration through the lungs means it hits the brain in seconds. Dr. Ruben Baler, National Institute of Drug Abuse, email to author, June 2017.
41 In August 1986, the nurseries of some New York City hospitals were overwhelmed with newborns abandoned by their crack-addicted mothers. Peter Kerr, “Babies of Crack Users Fill Hospital Nurseries,” New York Times, August 25, 1986.
42 The increase could be attributed to parents smoking crack, according to Eric Brettschneider, the deputy administrator of the New York City Human Resources Administration, in charge of special services for children. Peter Kerr, “Babies of Crack Users Fill Hospital Nurseries,” New York Times, August 25, 1986.
42 Police reported a 29.8 percent increase in murders and a 15.7 percent increase in robberies in New York City in the first five months of 1986. Peter Kerr, “Use of Crack: The Future; Unclear How Widely the Drug Will Spread,” New York Times, September 1, 1986.
42 Schools offered “teach-ins” on crack, while in the neighborhood around Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village, which in March–October 1987 saw 175 arrests a month for crack, residents took to the streets to protest the drug dealers. Peter Kerr, “Crushing the Drug Dealers of Washington Square,” New York Times, November 9, 1987.
42 The University of Maryland’s All-American basketball forward Len Bias died of a heart attack induced by smoking freebase cocaine in June of that year, two days after he was drafted by the Boston Celtics. Associated Press, “Evidence Indicates Bias Had Smoked Pure Form of Drug,” Los Angeles Times, July 10, 1986.
47 Shawn discovered through a local history book at school that there were sixty food pits or underground larders around Lacombe and Leland Avenues that contained human remains. Alanson Skinner, “Exploration of Aboriginal Sites at Throgs Neck and Clasons Point, New York City,” Contributions from the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation 5, no. 4 (1919), pt. 2.
51 A few months later, Pete cornered Shawn near the lockers at 174. Suge and Pipe, personal interview with author, Connecticut, August 14, 2013.
53 The neighbor said that Fat Mike, Darrick Coleman, and a friend of theirs had been murdered. Sarah Lyall, “3 Slain and 2 Hurt in Bronx Shooting,” New York Times, January 11, 1988.
53 Stepping gingerly, Forcelli followed a trail of blood left by someone who had crawled toward the front door. Testimony of Sam Hull, People of the State of New York v. Kirk Johnson, Bronx County Supreme Court, June 28, 1989.
54 The second victim had been a handsome young man with elaborate pomaded hair. Bronx District Attorney Video Unit, crime scene video taken at apartment 7F, 1680 Randall Avenue, January 10, 1988.
55 Sometimes they ate breakfast cereal for dinner when his father, a construction worker, wasn’t able to find work and money was short. Stephanie Clifford, “An Ex-Cop’s Remorse,” New Yorker, October 24, 2016.
Four: The Ledger of Death
60 Profits from crack cocaine pushed up homicides across the Bronx in 1988 and would play a role in at least 38 percent of all murders in New York City that year. Michael Marriott, “After 3 Years, Crack Plague in New York Only Gets Worse,” New York Times, February 20, 1989.
62 Nationally, while young American men of all races killed each other at the rate of 21.9 per 100,000 in 1987, young black males were murdered at almost four times that rate, at 85.6 per 100,000. Elisabeth Rosenthal, “U.S. Is by Far the Homicide Capital of the Industrialized Nations,” New York Times, June 27, 1990.
64 Almost half of the HAPD officers were nonwhite, mirroring the racial and ethnic makeup of the projects. Fritz Umbach, The Last Neighborhood Cops: The Rise and Fall of Community Policing in New York Public Housing (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2011), 45.
65 Welfare payments could not keep up with inflation, and food stamps were worth a third less. Fritz Umbach, The Last Neighborhood Cops: The Rise and Fall of Community Policing in New York Public Housing (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2011), 88.
69 But if you lived in the Thirty-Second Precinct, you were thirty-one times more likely to be murdered than someone living in Bayside, Queens. Jonathan Greenberg, “All About Crime,” New York, September 3, 1990.
69 In short, the odds that an urban black male in America would be murdered with a gun were greater than they had been that a US soldier would be killed in Vietnam. Seth Mydans, “Homicide Rate Up for Young Blacks,” New York Times, December 7, 1990.
70 The city went into overdrive. Jack Curry, “Tourist Slain in a Subway in Manhattan,” New York Times, September 4, 1990.
Five: The Kids from Cozy Corner
71 Leonard “Petey” Rollock, a.k.a. “the Boxer,” was a lower-level distributor busted in a DEA sting after selling heroin to an undercover agent in the Bronx in November 1976. Louis Diaz and Neal Hirschfeld, Dancing with the Devil: Confessions of an Undercover Agent (New York: Pocket Star Books, 2010); US v. Leroy Barnes et al., United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, argued June 22, 1978, and decided April 23, 1979.
Six: The Birth of Sugar Shaft
86 Behind the military-style structure at Spofford, it was turmoil. Fox Butterfield, All God’s Children: The Bosket Family and the American Tradition of Violence (New York: Knopf, 1995).
87 Many suffered from mental illness. Jennifer Gonnerman, “The Lost Boys of Tryon,” New York, January 24, 2010.
Seven: Kidnapped: Blood Begets Blood
102 “If you’re going to be shooting people, then make sure you kill them so they can’t come back and kill you. Know what I’m sayin’?” Pipe, personal interview with author, Connecticut, June 2014.
104 They ran in retreat, Pete and Suge taking cover behind a corner. Testimony of Suge, US v. Kevin Aller, United States District Court, Southern District of New York, May 14, 2003.
106 The boys circled five times before they spotted Lance and Kiron near an entrance facing Cozy Corner. Testimony of Suge, US v. Kevin Aller, United States District Court, Southern District of New York, May 14, 2003.
109 Bemo turned to see a contemptuous Kiron—the target of their drive-by—dressed in blue jeans, a black flight jacket, and an Orlando Magic hat. Bronx District Attorney Video Unit, crime scene video taken in Soundview, November 3, 1991.
110 Three tore into his back, one into his hand, and one ripped behind his right ear and through his brain, exiting to the left of his nose, killing him. Testimony of New York Medical Examiner Zoya Shumter, US v. Kevin Aller, United States District Court, Southern District of New York, May 14, 2003.
110 Nefertiti slipped past bystanders trying to restrain her from going to Kiron, who lay prone on the sidewalk. Testimony of Nefertiti Martin, US v. Kevin Aller, United States District Court, Southern District of New York, May 14, 2003.
THE RISE OF SEX MONEY MURDER
One: Gold Shield #1944
113 But at 3:00 a.m. that day, after picking up Chinese food for a late dinner and closing up at the Garden Grill in Woodside, the restaurant where he’d tended bar since his retirement, Jack had walked a female customer to her car. George James, “Retired Police Detective Fights Mugger and Is Slain,” New York Times, October 16, 1991.
114 Studies showed that across the country there had been a 217 percent rise in the number of fifteen-year-olds arrested for murder between 1985 and 1991. Barry Krisberg and James F. Austin, Reinventing Juvenile Justice (Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1993), ix.
Two: Sex Money Murder
124 When Suge awoke in the hospital, two detectives at his bedside charged him with assault with intent to kill the Jamaican and possession of an illegal firearm, among other charges. Records seen by author at Springfield District Court, 50 State Street, Springfield, Massachusetts.
125 She nodded to signify she understood, and left for Virginia the next day. Pipe, personal interview with author, Connecticut, June 2013.
125 The elder, David, known as Twin, largely controlled the Castle Hill projects and frustrated detectives at the Forty-Third because he and his identical brother would give each other alibis anytime they were arrested. Detective Stephen Alejandro, personal interview with author, Forty-Third Precinct, Soundview, Bronx, November 2014.
128 Pipe pleaded guilty to the assault and was given eighteen months’ probation. United States District Court, Southern District of New York, Probation Office, Presentence Report for Pipe, Docket S1001 CR 490-06 (TPG), December 3, 2004.
136 He found a keynote passage in chapter 17, “Cruelty and Compassion,” on whether it is better to be loved than feared, or the reverse. United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, Record No. 98-4272, US v. Peter Rollock, Joint Appendix 111 of IV Exhibits, letter from Pipe to Peter Rollock, December 14, 1997, Exhibit 33.
141 “I did him dirty, man,” he later bragged to BO. Suge, personal interview with author, Massachusetts, September 16, 2013.
Four: Pipelines of the Game
151 This time the drug dealers exacted their revenge. David Gonzalez, “Vandals Suspected of Setting Fires at Church in the Bronx,” New York Times, November 5, 1992.
152 Baby had sold over sixty kilos, netting more than $200,000, in the two years or so since he’d arrived in the city.Testimony of Derek McAllister, US v. Kevin Aller, United States District Court, Southern District of New York, May 14, 2003.
152 In January 1993, he found himself in court facing a host of weapons and drug distribution charges. Hampden Superior Court, Commonwealth v. Shawn (Davies), Unlawful possession of a controlled substance with intent to distribute Class B Cocaine, 94C-32A, January 6, 1993.
Five: Money Bath
155 A small setback occurred when Pete was arrested in Kingston, on April 15, at 81 Prospect Street, the hub of Sex Money Murder’s activities, and charged with possession. Kingston Police Department Arrest Report 93-1765, Kingston, NY, April 15, 1993
155 Codd, whose mother had been held at gunpoint in her house while $40,000 of his money was stolen, needed protection, and a gunbuster like Pete. Testimony of Savon Codd. US vs. Peter Rollock, United States District Court for the Western District of North Carolina, Charlotte Division, Docket 3:96CR168-MU, January 6, 1998.
157 As Santeria spread through the growing Hispanic communities of Harlem and the Bronx following its arrival in the city in the 1940s, police began to notice carcasses of headless goats and chickens at the foot of makeshift altars, dripping with wax candles, in places like Pelham Bay Park. Kenneth T. Jackson, ed., The Encyclopedia of New York City, 2nd ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press; New York: New-York Historical Society, 2010), 1150.
161 Two years before, in 1991, he had been convicted of the attempted murder of a New York cop, and had recently been released from prison upstate. Mara Shalhoup, BMF: The Rise and Fall of Big Meech and the Black Mafia Family (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2010), 8.
163 In 1993, New York City polarized as the number of homicides dropped in the wealthy enclaves of Manhattan but rose in poorer neighborhoods, including the Bronx public housing projects. Matthew Purdy, “1993 Homicides Fewer but More Clustered in New York City,” New York Times, January 10, 1994.
163 As Sex Money Murder grew in power, Soundview and the Forty-Third Precinct became one of the deadliest parts of the city, with a high of sixty-nine murders. New York City Police Department, CompStat figures, Forty-Third Precinct, 1990–2015.
163 A running gun battle between rival drug dealers had scattered spent 9mm and .380 casings across a pathway leading to the building’s back entrance. Garry Pierre-Pierre, “2 Families Shattered by Bronx Shooting,” New York Times, June 6, 1993.
163 With an outstretched arm, he beseeched Edwin for help. People of the State of New York vs. Rafael Agosto, Supreme Court of the State of New York, Appellate Division: First Department, Respondents Brief.
164 Conspicuously parked among the older, broken-down cars was a luxury green Jaguar, Poison’s car. Garry Pierre-Pierre, “2 Families Shattered by Bronx Shooting,” New York Times, June 6, 1993; Pete Forcelli, personal interview with author, Canada, September 2013.
164 Finally a few women, devout churchgoers who initially refused to bear witness because of perceived threats against them, were forced to swear on the Bible to what they had seen. People of the State of New York vs. Rafael Agosto, Supreme Court of the State of New York, Appellate Division: First Department, Respondents Brief.
165 By 1994, when the first Manhattan Starbucks opened on the Upper West Side, the drug business had already similarly shifted from a monolithic corporate model—too easily targeted by police—to a franchise model.Jonathan A. Knee, “How New York’s Love Affair with Starbucks Turned Sour,” Slate, July 17, 2012.
174 During that same time in the Bronx, however, three times that number were killed in a three-block area in Hunts Point, the corner of Seneca and Bryant Avenues, controlled by three warring crack gangs who sold drugs from a hole-in-the-wall. Elizabeth Glazer, “Treat New York’s Gangs like a Crime Family,” New York Times, November 1, 1998.
174 Was it a dangerous precedent to set? Lesley Suzanne Bonney, “The Prosecution of Sophisticated Urban Street Gangs: A Proper Application of RICO,” Catholic University Law Review 42, no. 3 (Spring 1993): 579–613.
174 RICO had been deployed against the drug crews in Harlem in the 1980s, but Glazer’s pivot would be to use the statutes to also go after murder and violence, rarely prosecuted in federal courts. Frank D’Angelo, “Turf Wars: Street Gangs and the Outer Limits of RICO’s ‘Affecting Commerce’ Requirement,” Fordham Law Review 76, no. 4 (2008): 2075–2111.
Seven: The Murder Game
182 As his connections developed, he asked them for cocaine, which he sold sitting on a crate from 7:00 a.m. until 1:00 p.m.Troy Reed, The Karlton Hines Story (full movie), Street Stars and Dozy Boy Productions, YouTube video, posted by VannieYpc, January 8, 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1tR9-HqpG1w.
183 The Dominican trafficker took a liking to the enterprising young basketball-star-turned-drug-dealer and planned to one day bring him into the rapidly expanding Sex Money Murder crew. Detective Gil Lugo, personal interview with author by telephone, January 12, 2016.
186 “Karlton, watch your back!” Stephen A. Smith, “Street Struck,” New York Daily News, April 24, 1994.
189 John Castro gave him $5,000 for the job. US v. Andino, United States District Court, Southern District, No. S1397CR.1293 (MGC), 01 F.Supp.2d 171 (2000), http://www.leagle.com/decision/2000272101FSupp2d171_1248/U.S.%20v.%20ANDINO.
190 At night he stepped into his Mercedes and headed out to spin records at a couple of Manhattan nightclubs like Danceteria, where Madonna gave some of her first public shows, while dealing cocaine to an expanding pool of celebrities.Mike Dunkley, personal interview with the author, Brooklyn, New York, August 2014.
194 The Kato in the song, though, actually referred to a friend of Big Syke, a rapper and Tupac collaborator who appears on Tupac’s Thug Life album, released in October 1994. Connie Bruck, “The Takedown of Tupac,” New Yorker, July 7, 1997.
196 “Yo, was that you?” exclaimed B-Love, watching Pete’s changing expression. “Oh man, you is dangerous!” Pipe, personal interview with author, Connecticut, August 24, 2013.
Eight: Gimme the Loot
199 Nut pulled up next to the driver, threw his bike to the ground, extended his arm, and, wordlessly, shot the driver in the side of the neck. Testimony of Pipe, US v. Sean Carr, Cr. 490 (TPG), United States District Court, Southern District of New York, August 6, 2003.
208 In May of 1995, six months after Twin had killed Frisky in the nightclub, Dula Martin spotted Barnes, wearing black sweatpants and a green hoodie, a diamond-encrusted gold Rolex on his wrist, standing on the corner of Castle Hill and Powell Avenues with a rap producer. Testimony of Andre Martin, US v. Xavier Williams, United States District Court, Southern District of New York, 00 Cr. 1008, June 23, 2005.
209 “Most Wanted in the Bronx,” said the headline. It went on: “He’s armed, he’s dangerous and he’s wanted for murder.” Rafael A. Olmeda, “Most Wanted in the Bronx,” New York Daily News, July 27, 1995.
209 “The Coming of the Super-Predators.” John Dilulio Jr., “The Coming of the Super-Predators,” Weekly Standard, November 27, 1995.
213 Suddenly he realized that he was walking two or three steps ahead of Scandal on his right-hand side and that Pipe, who had been on his left, was behind him. Author’s FOIL request, Bronx District Attorney for People v. Pipe, Indictment Number 5988/95, New York City Police Department Complaint—Follow-up Information, Complaint Number 12675, Statement of Natle Brown, September 1, 1995.
217 Portee now ran the most powerful prison gang on the east coast. Chris Hedges, “Old Colors, New Battle Cry; Gang’s Founder Stresses Aiding Community, Not Assaulting It,” New York Times, January 31, 2000.
218 To keep members under control he formed the “Bloody Bastards,” whose role was to hurt or kill members who didn’t carry out orders. US v. Omar Portee, aka O.G. Mack, aka The Godfather of the Bloods, aka the Big Homey, aka The Unknown, aka Anybody Killer, aka The Almighty, aka The Panther, aka The Big Lion, United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, Dockets 03-1251-cr(L), 03-1257-cr, 03-125.
Ten: Nasty Boys
225 Ninety-five percent of all criminal cases are resolved with pleas, and for those who lose at trial in the federal system, judges have little leeway in breaking away from sentencing guidelines. Angela J. Davis, “Federal Prosecutors Have Way Too Much Power,” New York Times, January 14, 2015.
ULTRAVIOLENCE: THE FALL OF SEX MONEY MURDER
One: The Fist
235 “Let me do it!” he shouted. “I know you and Bemo do your thing, but I’m your gangster, your man, homes.” Baby waved him off. “You just came home,” he said. “Bemo’s gonna do it.” Suge, personal interview with the author, Massachusetts, November 22, 2013.
236 Suge’s lawyer worked hard for his release, and he left prison in early October 1997. Hampden Superior Court, Commonwealth v. Shawn (Davies), Unlawful possession of a controlled substance with intent to distribute Class B Cocaine, 94C-32A, January 6, 1993; “Probation terminated,” October 6, 1997.
236 Killing had reached its height in 1993, when Soundview had sixty-nine murders; toward the end of 1997, that number had been reduced by two-thirds to twenty-two. Figures supplied by the NYPD from author request, March 17, 2017, and NYPD CompStat figures for the Forty-Third Precinct.
236 More broadly, 1996 saw fewer than a thousand murders across New York City; homicide rates plunged more steeply than other crimes, a milestone not seen since the mid-1960s. Michael Cooper, “New York City Takes a Bow as Homicide Rate Plunges,” New York Times, January 1, 1997.
236 Many pointed to the decline of the crack epidemic, which had abated significantly. Andrew Lang Golub and Bruce D. Johnson, “Crack’s Decline: Some Surprises Across US Cities,” National Institute of Justice, Research in Brief, July 1997.
Two: The Office
247 The NYPD had formed a Gang Task Force in the Bronx that month, bowing to the pressure from New Yorkers panicked that LA-gang-style violence might come to the city, due to a slew of stories in publications such as the New York Post and the Daily News that were an almost daily drumbeat by November. Alice McQuillan, “6 Bloods Arrested in Gang Rape—Cops,” New York Daily News, November 3, 1997; Lawrence Goodman, “Bloods Raped Her for Slight, Sez DA,” New York Daily News, November 5, 1997;Mark Stamey and Larry Celona, “Bloods Busted in Bid to Bash 101-Year-Old Rev,” New York Post, November 14, 1997; Larry Celona, Mark Stamey, William Neuman “Cops: Female Bloods Proud of Cabbie Slay,” New York Post, November 17, 1997.
247 On Halloween that year hundreds of children stayed home when rumors circulated that the New York City Bloods were going to be randomly slashing people in rites of initiation. Lynette Holloway, “Ideas & Trends: Last Rites; The Fear Is Real Enough. The Gangs Are Another Story,” New York Times, February 15, 1998.
248 He flipped quickly, and in an interview room weaved an elaborate story about a drug dealer named Frisky who had been killed in a nightclub over the growing North Carolina drug trade. Report supplied to author in case no. 13516 96 0029V, open file Savon Codd.
249 He then sent the profits back in order to pay off the debt Rollock said he had incurred paying the bail for their release. Testimony of Bigga D., US v. Peter Rollock, United States District Court for the Western District of North Carolina, Charlotte Division, Docket 3:96CR168-MU, January 6, 1998.
255 “And you’re going to think back to this day when a guy was sitting across from you, and you’re gonna say, ‘Boy, did I fuck up. I should’ve listened to that old guy.’” John O’Malley, personal interview with author, January 23, 2015.
255 Codd said that Sex Money Murder had recently incorporated in Delaware, setting up bank accounts through which money was laundered by a man named Nelson Rios. Public record search, SMMC Inc., Lexis Nexis, 2013, obtained by author from Robert Ryan.
258 Twin smiled. He wanted Ro to initiate him properly into the Bloods. Ro, personal interview with author, New York City, August 2014.
Four: “Make It Reign”
272 “I want you to always remember this no matter how long our father has been away from us, we are blessed, if we stay close to him we will be ahead in life, remember that.” United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, Record No. 98-4272, US v. Peter Rollock, Joint Appendix 111 of IV Exhibits. Letter from Peter Rollock to a relative, February 19, 1997, Exhibit 36.
275 Bemo said that the city had a black mayor and that it was a good place to sell drugs and get rich without too much police harassment. Testimony of Suge, US v. Kevin Aller, United States District Court, Southern District of New York, May 14, 2003.
276 A young woman he assumed to be around eighteen opened the door a crack. Tom Lyster, email to author, October 22, 2013.
Five: Bangin’ for Their Rats
289 According to the newspapers, disguised in a wig and dark glasses she brought the money the next day.Mike Parker, “Whitney Houston Pays Off Drug Gangsters,” Daily Express, April 5, 2009.
300 Suge passed and was moved to a specially constructed third-floor unit of the MCC, a prison within a prison, with its own security entrance. Pete Earley and Gerald Shur, WITSEC: Inside the Federal Witness Protection Program (New York: Bantam Books, 2002), 217.
Six: Myth’s End
306 “These kids are wilding out,” he complained. Retired Kingston detective Robert Henry, personal interview with author by telephone, February 2013.
314 In fact, Peter Rollock’s mother was never looked at in any way for prosecution. John O’Malley, email to author, April 24, 2015.
Seven: Dropping the Flag
331 Pipe ordered everyone to stop carrying on in “renegade mode.” Recording of SMM meeting by FBI’s C30 Unit on January 17, 2001, obtained by author.
334 The term “crackhead” now had such a negative connotation in the neighborhoods across New York that it repulsed youths who might be the new generation of addicts. Ansley Hamid, “The Developmental Cycle of a Drug Epidemic: The Cocaine Smoking Epidemic of 1981–1991,” Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 24, no. 4 (1992): 337–48.
344 He’d protected Nut for a murder of an innocent man; he’d bailed him out with $2,500 when he got caught in November 2000 pimping underage prostitutes—one under fourteen—in Hunts Point. Testimony of Sean Carr, US v. Sean Carr, Cr. 490 (TPG), United States District Court, Southern District of New York, August 14, 2003.
365 He’d been standing outside the apartment, according to a witness, shouting at the woman inside: “You better get the fuck out of here cuz I’m gonna start fuckin’ shootin’.” Springfield Police Department, Arrest 07-1585-AR, narrative by Officer Brian Elliott, April 3, 2007.
368 In his first two years in solitary, he took close-circuit TV courses in philosophy, political theory and economics. Benjamin Weiser, “Pondering Solitary Future For Gangster Held In Isolation For Years.” New York Times, July 8, 2012.
368 “We have concerns that he may enlist his father to have his father’s associates do harm to the witnesses and/or their families,” wrote a prosecutor. Benjamin Weiser, “Pondering Solitary Future For Gangster Held In Isolation For Years.” New York Times, July 8, 2012.
382 Crime dropped in New York City from 1990 to 2000 twice as much as in any other major American city; it became known as “the New York miracle.” Franklin E. Zimring, The Great American Crime Decline (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2007).